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Introduction
The huge commercial promotion of dental implants for the sole benefit of the companies that market them is discrediting other implant techniques that are often just as valid and certainly less invasive. Taking an honest approach and with due scientific rigor, we will clarify that there are thousands of implants - screws, blades, soldered needles, posts and composites, types with fixed or screwable abutments, and single-tooth, multiple and mixed types - that work as perfectly osseointegrated prosthetic abutments, without any resorption and recession of the surrounding tissues, and that have been around far longer than those currently being presented as innovations. This book has been written to do justice to all those who contributed to the evolution of implant dentistry, from its origins to the present day. For every technique, we will provide useful information, also offering opinions, reservations and recommendations. We will begin with the history of the first implant attempts, reporting it - where possible - with the same words and enthusiasm of the authors who followed one another in this long journey toward progress. We will continue with detailed and analytical descriptions of all modern implant techniques, examining the causes of their success or failure from a comprehensive standpoint. We will also emphasize that those who are about to rehabilitate an edentulous region should have a full understanding of the underlying causes that led to the condition in the first place, since this is the only way to avoid repeating the same mistakes, which will endanger the ultimate success of the procedures. We are referring mainly to causes related to alteration of static or dynamic occlusion, pointing out that implantation is only the first stage of rehabilitation, which will be completed by prosthetic functionalization of the implants. The fundamental importance of these concepts for the long life of the implants inspired the previous volume, Le patologie occlusali. Eziopatogenesi e terapia, which we consider an essential premise to this book. We would like conclude by expressing our gratitude to the Dental Clinic of the University of Modena (now the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia), which has supported our views for many years during this long, difficult but always exciting journey, undertaken together with many other colleagues, known and unknown, to find the answer to an age-old problem, one we hope has finally been solved once and for all.

Ugo_Pasqualini
Ugo Pasqualini
He attended the University of Modena and graduated with a degree in medicine on July 27, 1948. He subsequently specialized in Dentistry at the Zahn- und Kieferklinik of the University of Innsbruck, headed by Prof. K. Haüpl. For 25 years he was a nontenured professor, teaching clinical maxillofacial prosthetics at the Specialization School of Dentistry of the Dental Institute of the University of Modena (1966-91). From 1952 to 1955 he was the scientific director of the journal Odontes. In June 1957 he was appointed member of the Board of Directors of the Research Commission on Psychosomatic Stomatology established at the Dental Institute of the University of Pavia, directed by Prof. Silvio Palazzi. In 1962 he won the top “Campione d’Italia” prize for the best scientific report presented at the International Italo-Swiss Dental Congress. From 1970 to 1985 he was member of the Board of Directors of ANIO (Associazione Nazionale Implantoprotesi Orale), which was chaired by Prof. Oscar Hoffer, director of the Dental Institute of the University of Milan. He served as the cultural secretary of the Milan branch of AMDI (Italian Dental Association) from 1975 to 1978. He was a board member of the GISI (Italian Implant Study Group), which was chaired by Prof. Giordano Muratori from 1970 to 1996. He then served as president of SOMECOI (Società Medico Chirurgica di Odontoiatria Implantoprotesica) from 1983 to 1998. The author of 71 scientific articles, he also wrote Le patologie occlusali. Eziopatogenesi e terapia, which was published by Masson in 1993. A renowned researcher and lecturer, he spoke at the most prestigious international scientific implantology congresses and presented histological works on blades at the Royal Society of Medicine of London. He taught theoretical and hands-on courses in implant dentistry at the University of Zurich, directed by Prof. Hugo Obwegeser. These courses were also presented at the most prestigious American, German, and Spanish venues. He also taught postgraduate courses on implantology, gnathology, prosthodontics, and periodontal surgery. He filed several patents on different implant morphologies and prosthetic-implant connections. Dr. Pasqualini also had a private practice in Milan until 1998. He was a courageous scientist who anticipated the current trend of implant dentistry, ranging from two-step implants to immediate-load implants, and his sole focus was scientific progress. Thanks to his research, the principle of reparative osteogenesis (osseointegration) has become a scientific priority.

Dott. Marco E. PasqualiniMarco E. Pasqualini
He attended the University of Milan, graduating with a degree in medicine, and then earned a postgraduate degree cum laude in dentistry at the University of Modena. He was non-tenured professor of clinical maxillofacial prosthetics at the School of Dentistry, which is part of the Department of Medicine at the University of Modena (academic year 1991–92). He held a nontenured position with the Department of Medicine at the University of Bari, teaching “The role of plate-form implants in oral rehabilitation” as part of the coursework on oral diseases for the undergraduate program in dental hygiene (academic year 2001–02). He was also a non-tenured professor at the Department of Dental Sciences of the School of Medicine at the Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti for the postgraduate course on clinical implantology and biomaterials (academic year 2004–05) and the theoretical-practical refresher course on electrowelded implantology (academic year 2005–06), both of which directed by Stefano Fanali, professor of Dentistry 2. He's authored and coauthored 51 articles that have been published in national and international scientific journals, and has a personal photographic archive about dentistry composed of more than 20,000 slides. He worked with his uncle, Ugo Pasqualini, for 20 years in both daily practice and research work, and shares his scientific principles, outlined in the book Le patologie occlusali. Eziopatogenesi e terapia. He was vice president of AISI (Italian Academy of Implant Stomatology), and is a GISI (Italian Implant Study Group) fellow and a charter member of COM (Cenacolo Odontostomatologico Milanese). He was member of the board of directors of GISIGM (Giordano Muratori Italian Implant Study Group), directed by Prof. Francesco Mangini of the University of Bari. He has been president of the SOMECOI (Società Medico Chirurgica di Odontoiatria Implantoprotesica) since 1999 and is a charter member of AIIP (Academia Internacional de Implantologia y Periodoncia). He is an active member of ICOI (International Congress of Oral Implantologists) and SEI (Sociedad Española de Implantes) and serves as editorial advisor for the scientific journal Doctor Os and the Journal of Osseointegratrion published by Ariesdue (Carimate [Como], Italy). A National and International lecturer, he has taught postgraduate courses for updates on implantology and occlusions. Dr. Pasqualini has a private practice in Milan. He's the autor of "Treatise of implant dentistry - The Italian tribute to modern implantology".

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